Some were linked to the notion of a learning organization and explored the benefits of that but not specifically in the context of stress management; many were also outside the selected timeframe. The studies involved interventions targeted at features of the work environment or culture, and broad sources of workplace stress are suggested. Intervention study on psychosocial work factors and mental health and musculoskeletal outcomes. Hurrell and Murphy suggest that workplace interventions fall into three categories: In this respect there are some prominent factors across the studies:
In terms of the scale of the project, the most extensive was a study in a manufacturing plant Heaney et al. Efforts to ensure a good match for the groups are especially apparent in the Bond and Bunce study, but despite having addressed many of the difficulties inherent in applying randomized selection strategies the authors note that there may still have been important, unknown differences between them, for example in relation to roles and responsibilities. Senior managers not only have to be aware of the interdependency of workplace and individual factors in employee well-being but also recognize the potential benefits of stress prevention to employers. Action plans USA labour-management relations on presented to joint meetings of management and unions. Attrition rate by second survey: Achieving this will require further comparative studies, and new tools to evaluate the intensity of individual distress.
The resultant self-assessment tool for employees is available at mcvucar. Nature of stress targeted, and the participatory process: Four of the papers actually referred to just two studies, but for two papers Lavoie- Tremblay, ; Lavoie-Tremblay et al. Future research might be guided by understanding features integral to successful PAR designs.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
However, whilst the focus is organizational, perhaps the greatest lever to engage participants will always be the perceived benefit to the individual asked to take part, whether that person is an employer, employee or union representative, and this will be a challenge for researchers while building and maintaining rapport and trust.
Although they reported significant outcomes, the prospective nature of the research designs often introduced concerns in providing an appropriate evaluative process because of the detrimental effects of staff turnover, management change and organization-wide policy changes. Keywords Organizational change, Stress, Wellness interventions, Research methods, Workplace wellness Paper type Research paper The scale of the problem of workplace stress is well recognized: The most commonly applied scale was the Maslach Burnout Inventory three studies.
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Participatory approaches are recognized as being potentially challenging as so many staff groups may be involved. That project achieved a number of its aims, in particular reduction in factory noise, establishment of a worker project group and a model for continuing worker education, but wider structural aims, such as break times and a process for decision making regarding worplace change, were not realized.
In two studies Mikkelsen et al.
What appeared to be more important was the level of uptake of the intervention by employees within the organization or unit; this has implications for the design of the study in the context of its specific aims and scope. Workplacee study by Heaney et al.
In general, most studies lasted at least 18 months. Recent post United Kingdom Department of Health documents and literature about the views of practitioners was also consulted. Randomly Included plenary, individual and small group sessions, characteristics allocated to an intervention and facilitated by consultant and to a control group Five work groups: Contributory factors to collaborative involvement include a presence of a social climate of learning, the provision of opportunities for multi-level nurssing in the design of interventions, awareness of tacit behaviours that may be undermining, and definition of roles and responsibilities Nytro et al.
With the systems approach, translation of research findings into actions is a revjew barrier, and empowering staff and their participation is a key factor e. Four studies were not empirical per se, but were either discussion papers related to participation two studiesor were evaluation studies which did not involve an intervention two studies.
If workplae is to be fully successful then it is essential that senior managers recognize that resolving factors pertaining to employment, rather than individuals, are the most appropriate means of managing workplace stress, 34 and that they, and unions, should be engaged in the participatory process and be supportive of initiatives.
The studies involved interventions targeted at features of the work environment or culture, and broad sources of workplace stress are suggested. Efforts to ensure a good match for the groups are especially apparent in the Bond and Bunce study, but despite having addressed many of the difficulties inherent in applying randomized selection strategies the authors note that there may still have been important, unknown differences workplacs them, for example in relation to roles and responsibilities.
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Ljterature studies which had predominantly positive outcomes, in order literatjre identify features of their designs. Smaller organizations or units within larger organizations with up to participants seem most appropriate for this approach. The author suggests that established hierarchical decision-making processes, and inequality of power in the company were critical factors, the implication being that engagement of management and the perceived benefits of change, are more important than how an interventional project is initiated.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al. Lack of reward and shiftworking may also now be displacing some of the other issues in order of ranking. Stress perception is highly subjective, and so the complexity of nursing practice may result in variation between nurses worklace their identification of sources of stress, especially when the workplace and roles of nurses are changing, as is currently occurring in the United Kingdom health service.
A literature jcvicar from January to April was conducted using the key words nursing, stress, distress, stress management, job satisfaction, staff turnover and coping to identify research on sources of stress in adult and child care nursing.
Action plans USA labour-management relations on presented to joint meetings of management and unions.
These usually drew on the findings from earlier phases of the study and 6,1 informed the next stage, such as a wider consultation phase or implementation phase. The application of a democratic approach is a central principle of PAR, and in studies reporting issues related to employee participation, it is striking that a lack of engagement of managers, or distrust of management, was often apparent see Table II.
Remember me on this computer. Qualitative methods were prominent in the participatory process and included the use of interviews, focus groups and observations to explore the problem area, usually after the initial survey had been completed. Norway job stress and other job institutions. Corresponding author Andrew McVicar can be contacted at: